Materials Used in Daily Life | SEE Chemistry Notes
Definition: The mixture of calcium aluminates and calcium silicate is called cement.
Cement Clinker: Small pea-shaved ball prepared from the slurry which is the mixture of limestome and a special type of clay (Al2O3SiO2 ) with water is cement clinker.
Gypsum: Gypsum is mixed to cement to increases its setting times.
Concrete and Mortar: A mixture of cement sand and water is called mortar whereas A mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water is called concrete.
Definition: The silicate of metal (Na, K, ca, etc) is called glass.
Quartz glass: The crystalline glass formed from the extreme heated (1600°) silica is called Quartz glass.
Colour glass: The glass that obtained by adding trace amount of metallic oxide in raw glass is called Coloured glass.
Definition: The polymer is a large molecule formed from monomers.
Examples: Cellulose, Rubber, Plastic, etc.
Cellulose: The polymer found in nature is called Cellulose. It is present in cell wall of plant cell and called Natural Polymer.
Ceramic: Ceramics is a special type of clay which has carbon, nitrogen, silica, and oxygen. It is used to produce pottery.
Kaolin: The pure white clay is called Kaolin. We use it for making cups, kitchen utensils, etc.
Definition: The plastic is the polymer made from polymerization of monomer. It is a long changed Polymer.
Example: PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride)
Thermoplastic: The soft and flexible plastic that can be molded into the desired shape and melts after heating is called thermoplastic.
NPK, Soap and Detergent
NPK: It stands for nitrogen phosphorus and potassium containing fertilizers.
Insecticide: The chemicals used to kill insects is called Insecticides.
Pesticides: The chemicals used to kill pests (example: insects, mittes, rodents, etc.) are called pesticides.
Melamine: Melamine is a type of thermosetting plastic which can be coloured easily and is used to make cups, plates, Bowles, saucers, etc.
Monomer: The tiny molecules take part in polymerization is called Monomer.
Soap and Detergent:
|The sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid is called Soap.||The sodium salt of long chain of benzoic sulphuric acid is called detergent.|
|They are bio-degradable.||They are not bio-degradable.|
|They don’t create chemical pollution.||They create chemical pollution.|
Sodium lauryl sulphate
AlKyl benzene sulphate
Hard glass and soft glass
|Hard glass||Soft glass|
|It is formed by heating silica along potassium carbonate and calcium carbonate||It is formed by heating silica along with sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate|
|It doesn’t melt easily.||It melts easily.|
Quartz glass and water glass
|Quartz glass||Water glass|
|It is formed by heating silica strongly.||It is obtained by heating the silica along with sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate.|
|It is insoluble in water.||It is soluble in water.|
a. Why is glass known as a supercooled liquid through it is solid?
Ans: Through glass seems solid, but the glass molecules are in a slow-motion from higher to lower surface. So, it is called supercooled liquid.
b. Why are natural fibers friendly in environment?
Ans: Natural fibers degrade quickly in the environment and do not cause any unendurable change in the original state of air, water, land and so do on. So, it is friendly in environment.
c. Why is synthetic cleanses harmful for plants?
Ans: Synthetic cleanses are neither degradable nor organic, so they harmful for plants.
d. Why do environmentalists go against plastic?
Ans: It does not rot in air, water, land, and causes air pollution if it is burnt. There is not dumping for plastic. So, environmentalists go against the plastic.
e. Why is Bakelite used to cover the handle of pressure cooker instead of PVC?
Ans: PVC melts on heating but Bakelite does not, so Bakelite is used to make the cover of the handle of pressure cooker.
Some Important Questions
- Why detergents are better than soap?
Ans: Following are the reasons for detergents are better than soap:
i. It is more soluble and useful than soap.
ii. It can be used in hard water too to cleanse the clothes.
- What are the drawbacks of detergents?
Ans: The drawbacks of detergents are:
i. It pollutes the water.
ii. The chemicals of detergent are non-degradable.
ii. The detergent mixed water affects aquatic animals and plants.
- Why Pyrex glass is less affected by the heat?
Ans: It is less affected by heat because it has borosilicate.
- What are the properties of ceramics?
Ans: Following are the properties of ceramics:
I. Ceramics can withstand high temperature.
ii. They are poor conductor of heat and electricity.
iii. They do not react with other chemicals.
- What are the main natures of glass?
Ans: Glass is a supercooled liquid. It does not react with chemical materials. It is a mixture.
- What is synthetic fibre? Write with examples.
Ans: The fibre made from the chemical process is called synthetic fibre. For e.g. Nylon, polyester, Terylene, acrylic, etc.
- What is a regenerated fibre? Give examples.
Ans: Regenerated fibres are made from natural materials. They are derived from cellulose in cotton and wood pulp. For example Rayon.